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Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay

Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay

Case Study 1 – Endocrine, integumentary and neurovascular disorders

Q1) Diabetes Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes where the pancreas can still produce insulin however the body loses the ability to use the insulin it produces effectively, this is called insulin resistance, (“Type 2 diabetes”, 2018). Cells don’t respond to insulin and the pancreas does not produce enough insulin for the body’s increased needs. If the insulin cannot do its job, the glucose channels do not open properly. Glucose builds up in the blood instead of getting into cells for energy. Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although there is a strong genetic predisposition, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is significantly increased with factors that may be related to lifestyle choices including high blood pressure, high cholesterol and insufficient physical activity. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

Q2) Poor blood circulation or loss of sensation due to diabetes-related nerve damage means that pressure on the skin goes unnoticed resulting in pressure ulcers. This also links back to Percy’s past medical history of peripheral neuropathy. It is the inability of the damaged skin to repair itself normally that result in ulceration.

Q3) Percy’s BGL recorded 2. 7 mmol/l. This means his hypoglycaemic. I would get him to drink a soft drink or something with sugar in it. Then I would continue to check his BGL over the next 5 hours.

Q4) Percy’s wound is red and leaking fluid because it’s infected. Diabetes reduces the blood circulation to and around the wound site. A lack of circulation in the extremities can result in a reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients to the body tissue and nerves, which is necessary for healing. Over time, nerves in these areas may become damaged, decreasing the sensation of pain, temperature and touch, making patients vulnerable to injury.

Q5) Endocrinologist An endocrinologist is a medical specialist who is trained to diagnose and manage diseases that affect the glands and the hormones. An endocrinologist aims to restore hormone balance within the body’s systems. Endocrinologists commonly treat and provide expert advice on the management of diabetes. Die titian A dietician will work with the patient to develop a personalised healthy eating plan to suit their lifestyle, their type of diabetes and individual health needs. They can educate on how to read food labels, modify recipes and even how to order at restaurants to make healthier choices. Exercise physiologist/physiotherapist An exercise physiologist/physiotherapist can help to determine the appropriate exercise/activity plan for the patient individually suited to their needs and lifestyle. They will assist in increasing mobility and comfort.

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Case Study two – Neurological and urinary disorders

Q6) Urinary Tract Infection due to positive levels in protein, nitrates and blood.

Q7) Risk factors for urinary tract infection include

  • duration of catheterization – insertion
  • aphasia – patients inability to speak makes it harder for her to alert physicians of burning sensation and pain when voiding
  • CVA – stroke severity, depressed conscious level increased post-void residual urine volume

Q8) “Fever is generally defined as a temperature above 38 degrees, and occurs when the hypothalamus increases the core body temperature in response to an infection” (Musselman & Saely 2013). Febrile temperatures operate as a systemic alert system that promotes immune surveillance during challenge by invading pathogens, (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson, 2017) Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

Q9) TIA (Transient Ischaemic Attack) – occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked temporarily. When the blood supply is stopped, the brain cells in the area start dying, and you experience signs that something is wrong, (“Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) — Stroke Foundation – Australia”, 2018). The signs and symptoms are similar to that of a stroke however they disappear within a short time and are often only present for a short time. After a TIA the risk of having a stroke is higher and often acts as a warning sign. CVA (Cerebrovascular Accident) – often referred to as a stroke. A stroke is a sudden loss of cerebral circulation, which causes cerebral infarction. The sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flows to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain. An embolic stroke occurs when a blood clot that forms elsewhere in the body breaks loose and travels to the brain via the bloodstream. When the clot lodges in an artery and blocks the flow of blood, this causes an embolic stroke.

Q10) Neurologist: This doctor is a specialist trained to treat disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, such as: Cerebrovascular disease, such as stroke. Speech Therapist: This professional helps you relearn language and communications skills. Speech therapists also help you deal with swallowing problems and develop alternative ways of communicating. Physiotherapist: uses exercises and physical manipulation of your body to help restore movement, balance and coordination. Physiotherapists can help you relearn movement skills, such as walking, sitting, lying down and switching from one type of movement to another. Case Study three – Respiratory, genetic and reproductive disorders

Q11) ‘Cystic fibrosis is inherited as an autosomal recessive condition’, (“Cystic Fibrosis – What is CF”, 2018), this means a child can only have the disease if both parents are carriers. Carriers have no symptoms; however they do carry a genetic change referred to as a “mutation” that may be passed on to future generations. Because Madeline’s parents are both carriers there is a 1 in 4 (25%) chance that both passed on the non-functioning gene, (“Cystic Fibrosis – What is CF”, 2018). Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

Q12) Cystic fibrosis causes the mucus that coats the bronchial tubes to become so thick and sticky that the cilia are unable to sweep the germs and other particles up and out of the lungs. The trapped bacteria lead to frequent, serious infections and permanent lung damage.

Q13) Most men with cystic fibrosis are infertile because of a blockage or absence of the sperm canal, known as congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). The sperm never makes it into the semen, making it impossible for them to reach and fertilize an egg through intercourse. The absence of sperm in the semen can also contribute to men with CF having thinner ejaculate and lower semen volume.

Q14) Madeline will experience exacerbation of respiratory and other disease symptoms, requiring intensified treatments, if she decides to fall pregnant. Normal pregnancy is associated with significant respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic changes. Although healthy women usually adjust easily to these changes, they may impose a considerable strain for women whose physiology is already severely compromised with cystic fibrosis.

  • Increased risk of pulmonary infection
  • Decreased pulmonary function
  • Increased oxygen consumption

Q15) Pulmonologist: managing the care of chronic respiratory diseases is one of a pulmonologist’s main duties. Pulmonologists also coach their patients on management of their illness, by making lifestyle changes or learning coping strategies to minimize their reliance on medications.

Respiratory Therapist: performs pulmonary function tests to measure the air flow and volume in your lungs. Assists with pulmonary therapies, which are designed to clear mucus (sputum) out of your lungs, control bacteria and reduce the inflammation of your airways. These therapies involve airway clearance techniques (ACTs) and inhaled or nebulized medications.

Physiotherapist: Physiotherapy management is a key element of care for people with cystic fibrosis. The lungs make mucus to help defend against germs. Cystic fibrosis changes the mucus, making it thick and hard to clear. Brisk percussion of the chest wall helps to break up and dislodge mucus, so it can be more easily coughed out of the body.

This assessment requires students to submit a written assessment for each of the body systems studied in this unit

  • Cells and Tissues
  • Integumentary System
  • Musculoskeletal System
  • Nervous System
  • Endocrine and Senses System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Respiratory System
  • Urinary System
  • Lymphatic System
  • Immune System
  • Gastrointestinal System
  • Reproductive System

Students will be required to answer the following questions, according to each body system, to demonstrate your knowledge of the Anatomy and Physiology of the human body.

  1. What is the Anatomy of this system?

What is it?

  • What is the Physiology of this system?

How does it work?

  • Provide a pictorial representation.
  • Does this body system work with other systems in the body?How? Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  • List 2diseases(pathophysiology)of this system and how they impact on it.
  • List 2 Medications and contraindications and contraindications and contraindications related to the diseases chosen. Include their use, drug interactions, and side effects.
  • How does this system defend itself?What are the Immune Responses related to this system?
  • What are the main signs of aging according to this system?
  • List types of trauma
  • What Nursing Interventions and planning services would you implement/action when caring for a client with the above-chosen diseases?

The following websites may assist with this assessment

Cells and Tissues

  1. Anatomy

Cells

____Cells are the structural and functional unit of any living body. It is the basic building block of the body. In the human body there are as many as trillions of cells. This unit takes in nutrition and convert nutrition into energy. It the site, where all the specialized functions take place in the living body. Cells carry the hereditary material in the form of DNA within the nucleus of the cell.

Types of cells

____There are 200 different types of cells in any living body. Each of the different categories of cells is specialized in performing to perform specific functions. The different types of cells include:-

  • Stem cells
  • Red Blood cells
  • White Blood Cells White Blood cells include three types- Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocytes
  • Bone cells
  • Muscle cells
  • Fat cells
  • Nerve Cells
  • Endothelial cells

Tissues

Tissues are the building block of the human body. There are three different types of tissues available in the human body they are epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue

  • Physiology

 Assimilation of the different types of cells in the human body forms the tissue system. Connective tissue help in the binding of the different part of the body. It helps in the support and protection to the body The muscle tissue helps in maintaining the flexibility of the body through its elasticity. The nervous tissue helps in the communication between the different organs of the body.

  • Pictorial Representation
  • Related systems/ how

Tissues are closely associated with the organs. Aggregation of the cells leads to the formation of tissue and several types of tissues aggregate to form different organs performing a different function in the body. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

  • Pathophysiology

One of the most important pathological reactions which are demonstrated by the tissues is the inflammation and irritation in the connective tissue. These inflammations are highly localized in nature. They can cause in the disturbance of the blood flow, leading to the swelling of the degradation and different immune responses in case of the attack of the pathogen or any external agent.

  • Defense and Immune Responses

Bone marrow is a soft tissue which helps in the production of the different lymphocytic cells and other blood cells which help in the immune response of the body.

  • Medications and contraindications

Medication like nifedipine or Norvasc helps in the relaxation of the muscle tissue, it also helps in the relaxation of the blood vessels walls and used in the treatment of the Raynaud’s disease. The medication for the disorder is given depending on the location of the disorder.

  • Degenerative Changes

The degenerative change includes loss in the elasticity of the muscular tissue with the increase in the age of the patient. Further, as the age increases the blood supply, oxygen concentration also decrease in the body.

  • Types of Trauma

Trauma in the tissue can be categorized into:-

  • Coagulative necrosis
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Sublethal necrosis
  • Mitochondrial change in the tissue
  •  fibroid necrosis
  • Gangrenous necrosis
  •  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The healing of the tissue has different phases which involve process like haemostasis, defensive and inflammatory phase profliferation and maturation phase. Care should be taken that the patients are kept in a clean area, nutitional and dietary supplement plan are to be provided to the patient, regular monitoring of the disrupted tissue or affected should be done.

Integumentary System

  1. Anatomy

_____ The anatomy of the integumentary system consists of skin and its accessory parts. The skin has different underlying layers and the layers are supported by the connective tissue underneath the skin. The thicker is the skin, more complex and extensive the vascular system supporting the skin. The skin is also supported with different sensory and sympathetic nerves which help in the communication of the skin with brain. The skin has 2 layers. The Epidermis layer and dermis layer. The epidermis layer is made up of epithelial cells. The dermis layer is made up of connective tissue and hair follicles, blood vessels and also sweat glands.

The Epidermal layer of the skin is keratinised and is made up of squamous epithelial cell. The epidermal layer of the skin is composed of 4 layers of the squamous epithelial layer of cells. These layers are referred as thin layer of the skin as they do not have any blood vessels. From the superficial layer to the deepest layer of the tissues they are termed as Stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum. The thick layer of the skin is the fifth layer is found underneath the palms and feet. This thick layer is known as stratum lucidum which lies between the layers stratum granulosum and corneum. All the layers of the epidermis consist of keratinocytes cells which help in the production of keratin.__

The Dermis layer of skin is also known as the core of the skin which comprises of the blood vessels, lymphatic system, sweat glands. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay. The connective tissue which makes up the dermal layer consists of elastine fibres

  1. Physiology

The main function of the integumentary system is it ability to protect the body and its internal organs from the external environment. It helps in maintaining the body temperature. It protects the body from the ultraviolet rays of the sun. Skin acts as the first line of defence for the body against various infection and environmental changes as well as any change in the process of homeostasis. The skin helps in excreting out certain wastes in the form of sweat

Pictorial Representation

  1. Related systems/ how

The system that closely works with the integumentary system is the circulatory system. The skin consists of several blood capillaries on the surface. These capillary near the surface of the skin has the ability to maintaining the body temperature. The capillaries dilate when the body needs to cool down while it constricts when the body needs to conserve heat within the body. The skin also consists of oil and sweat glands that protects the skin from bacterial invasion.

  1. Pathophysiology

____ The integumentary system being the first line of defence mechanism, it gets affected with different types of infection, diseases, and injuries. The pathophysiology deals with the different diseases and injuries observed in the system.

A. Diseases- Amongst the disease, skin cancer is caused by the exposure of the skin cell to the ultraviolet rays of the sun. The excessive exposure of the skin to UV rays leads to DNA damage that causes skin cancer. Basal cell carcinomas that affect the areas of the skin like neck, arms or back which are more exposed to the sun that any part of the body. Mitotically active stem cells get affected leading to the formation of bump or growth or scar. Squamous cell epithelial cancer is caused in the keratinocytes of the epidermis occurring in the scalp, ears or hand. Melanoma is another type of skin disease that are caused due to the excessive growth of the melanocytes. They usually form a mole or grows in size due to the metastasis.

B.  Skin disorder includes Eczema and acne. Eczema is an inflammatory condition of the skin. It can occur at any age of the human body. Acne occurs due to the clogging of the pores on the epidermal layer which may lead to infection or inflammation. Other types of skin disease include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, cold sores, impetigo, scabies, hives, and warts. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

C. Injuries- Injuries of the skin may include burns, wounds scars that are caused by excessive sharp objects due to pressure or friction

5.  Defence and Immune Responses

______The integumentary system helps in protecting the body acting as a first layer of the defence mechanism against the external environment. Skin helps in maintaining the body fluids and depends against various infection and attacks of the bacteria and virus. Skin consists of receptors for different types of senses like temperature, touch, and pain. In the presence of sunlight, skin helps in the production of Vitamin D. Epidermal layer of the skin helps in maintaining the skin layer and in replacement of the old cells. The keratinised layer of the skin hardens and form a protective layer over the skin, making it water proof. The dermal layer of the skin consists of several blood vessels as well as sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland is an oil producing glands which contains enzymes that helps in destruction of the pathogens. The rupturing of the skin and the surface-blood capillaries allows invasion of the pathogen leading to inflammation and infection. The blood capillaries produce enzymes and platelets that repair the damage on the surface of the skin protecting the skin from infection. And prevents and further blood flow.

Immune system: Other than acting as a protection against the external environment, the integumentary system also produces keratinocytes. These keratinocytes produces interferons. The interferons are helps in the protection against the viral attack. The dermal layer of the skin consists of lymphatic system which produces defence mechanism against the attack of the bacterial and viral infection.  ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Medications and contraindications

______Medications that are used to treat different skin conditions include various topical and oral drugs. Topical treatments of the skin includes-

  • Antibiotibacterials: – Drugs like mupirocin or clindamycin is used prevent infection on skin.
  • Anthralin: – This drug is used to help in the treatment of inflammation and psoriasis.
  • Antifungal: – Drugs like clotrimazole, ketoconazole are some of the well-known topical drugs for various fungal skin infections like ringworm infection.
  • Corticosteroids: – This is used for the treatment of eczema. This type of treatments includes foam, creams, and lotions.
  • Retinoids:- This comes in the form of gels and foams as a derivatives of Vitamine A which helps in the treatment of acne.
  • Salicyclic acid:- This is used in the form of soaps and shampoos or wash for the acne or warts.
  • Oral antibiotics like dicloxacillin, erythromycin, and tetracyclin for the treatment of the skin condition.
  • Drugs like flucoconazol and itraconazole for the treatment of the fungal infection.

Contraindication is a specific condition where a certain types of drug cannot be administered in to the patient. This can occur because of certain reason like the two different types of drugs that are given to the patient may work antagonistic to one another. There are certain types of drugs in case administered in to the patient can be life threating.  For example medicines like isotretinoin are a type of drug for treatment of acne.  In case this type of drug cannot be given to a pregnant patient. Several drugs are also found to cause allergic reaction and high blood pressure in the patients.

  1. Degenerative Changes

Degenerative changes of the skin occurs as the skin ages, it becomes thinner and can be easily damaged. This includes the disability of the skin to heals itself as fast as the normal human being. The skins lose its elasticity and are found to have wrinkles. Further aging of the skin leads to the less flow of the blood and low glandular activity.

  1. Types of Trauma

____The different types of trauma involves in the integumentary system are caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation, and friction.

  • Burn:- This is caused by heat, chemical, radiation, light or friction. Classification of burn occurs on the basis of the severity and the surface area involved. It also depends upon the depth of the injury. Further, it can be categorised into major and minor types on the basis of area involved and the thickness of the burn. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  • Allergies:- It is the type of hypersensitivity disorder caused in the immune system. This can be mild as well as it have high risk factors.
  • Acne:-  It is a skin disease affecting the skin of the face, chest and the back part of the body. This involves in those part of the skin which have larger number of sebaceous glands.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

______For any kind of the skin infection nursing requires maintaining hygiene condition is essential.  So for the skin of the old people that have lost elasticity and suppleness should be monitored from the breakdown. The skin needs to be kept dry and clean. Wounds that have led to the damage due to the punctures, rupture injuries and abrasion, healing has several phases for them. This can be categorised into primary healing, secondary healing and tertiary wound healing. Wound healing can be clean wound cause due to the operational procedures, contaminated wound which may have occurred due to the area getting infected with skin flora, trauma or laceration. It can also be infected wound which have led to sepsis that have changed in the colour or odour or are inflamated.

Musculoskeletal System

  1. Anatomy Skeletal – bones

_____Bones are a part of the skeletal system which is made up of the hard and dense tissue called connective tissues. Bone tissue is also known as osseous tissue. Bone skeletal structure acts as the internal support of the body.

Joints

__The areas in the skeletal system that moves against each other in the presence of cartilages that helps in the flexibility of the body. This movement of the bones against each other with the help of cartilages are known as joints. There are three types of joints that are found in the human body. They are immovable joints, partly movable joints and synovial joints.

Muscles

_The movement in the human body occurs with the action of the muscles and bones. Muscles usually work in pairs which lead to the movement of the body. This movement occurs with the contraction and relaxation of the muscles. This process is known as antagonism. Muscles work with the help of electrical and chemical activity. The muscles are made up of actin and myosin filaments.

  1. Physiology

____The most important function of the Musculoskeletal system is support of the body, movement and protecting the body. Bones helps in the movement with the helps of the attached muscles (Vemulapalli and Chellappa, 2016). Some bones only support the muscles for the function while some bones helps in transmitting the forces produces during the contraction of the muscle.  Bone tissue also performs several other critical activities. They acts as the site for the deposition of the fat and production of the blood cells. The softer types of connective tissue maintains the internal part of the bone which is known as the bone marrow. There are two different types of bone marrow, the yellow bone marrow and the red bone marrow. The red bone marrow helps in the haematopoiesis, which means production of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets which are part of the circulatory system.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

__The musculoskeletal system works with trwo other system. They are nervous system and the circulatory system. Further, the muscles are also participate in the digestive, respiratory and immune system. The nervous system is one of the most complex systen in the human body which helps in processing of the information (Vemulapalli and Chellappa 2016). The processing of the information leads to the responses which are acted on the muscles. Additionally, at certain types muscles act as an impulse on the nervous system with the help of the sensors. With the help the help of the circulatory system the nutrients are supplied to the muscles and the wastes are excreted out from the body.  Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Pathophysiology

____The musculoskeletal system shows various types of discomforts like muscle weakness, stiffness, pain, fatigue, loss in the sensory action, swelling and inflammation causing increase in the heat of the body. Different parts of the body shows different types of the pathophysiological symptoms. This includes parts like muscles, joints, nerves, bones. The most crucial part of the musculoskeletal system is that in case there is any mismatch in the applied physical exertion to that of the ability of the person to with stand the pressure. Further the magnitude of the pressure applied and the time of application and the recovery period also plays a vital role.  This capacity varies from one person to the other, health of the person, time of exposure, age, gender, training effects and weakening of the body.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

__In case of a severely sick person, the immobility of the patients leads to compromise the muscle condition. Skeletal muscles have a way of protecting the inflammation of the muscles through the production of heat proteins and mytokines. This helps in the inflammatory response and signalling of the body. In addition, the musculoskeletal system is also responsible for the metabolism of glucose and protein.

Bones plays an important factor in the maintenance of the immune system of the body. Bone has the capacity to store various types of minerals and also involves in the formation of the blood cells in the bone marrow.  This process of formation of the blood cells is known as homeostasis. This process is regulated and coordinated by two different types of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Musculoskeletal system also helps in the regulation of the immune system. Inflammatory reaction caused in bone is also protected by the typical T-lymphocytes present in the osteoclast cells.

  1. Medications and contraindications

_____There are several drugs that can be administered in the patients suffering from the musculoskeletal pain or fatigue. These drugs include nonsteroid   drugs for anti-inflammation. Medicines like Zolpidem, Eszopiclone and Rozerem are some of the medicines which are given to the patients for pain. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

The drugs which are administered in the patients may lead to blood clotting and allergies. While administration sterile condition are to be maintained to prevent any inflammation.

  1. Degenerative Changes

____With the increase in the age of the patients’ symptoms like osteoarthritis can be observed in the patients. This is an chronic disability found to be suffered by the older individuals. Osteoarthritis are found to occur due to the regular wear and tear of the joints, however factors like inflammation with the increase in the activity of the cytokines and chemokines in the joints are also observed in the aged patients.  Abnormal joint injury obesity can also lead to osteoarthritis.

  1. Types of Trauma

____The types of injuries that are observed related to the musculoskeletal system are tendinitis, Rheumatoid arthritis, bone fractures, strain in muscles or tendon, sprain in ligament, Osteoartritis, Tension Neck Syndrome, Trigger finger, Carpel Tunnel Syndrome are some of the severe traumas.

  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

______The nursing intervention includes administration of the analgesics to relieve pain, assisting patients on putting back bone braces. Encouragemnt of the patients for walking daily which will help in the strengthening of bone, encouraging the young women to consume good nutrition to minimise risk of the bone.

The nursing plans include in case of the patients with fracture to be casted or should be kept in traction in order to avoid any complications. Further, assessment of the condition of the patient and administration of the suitable drugs to avoid any pain is essential. Regular assessment of the nursing procedure needs to be evaluated._

Nervous System

  1. Anatomy

The nervous system of the human beings comprises of two main parts. They are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of brain and spinal cord.  Brain regulates most of the functions which includes activities like awareness, sensation, speech, memory, movements. Brain is connected to the spinal cord and is covered by vertebral column. Several nerves exist from the spinal cord and distribute to the different part of the body.

The peripheral nervous system comprises of the parts which are outside the central nervous system. This type of the nervous system takes the signal from the brain and brings it back to the brain from the other parts of the body. The peripheral nervous system is categorised into somatic and autonomous nervous system. They controls activities like walking breathing, digestion

2. Physiology –

The primary function of the nervous system can be categorised into three types of functions. They are sensory functions, motor activity and integrative function of the body. Sensory functions involve in includes the activity by which the change in the environment like change in in temperature,  pH, carbon dioxide are detected as signals and then they are send to the brain in the form of electric impulse (Mulders et al. 2018.). The integrative functions involve in the sorting of the information that are send to the brain with the help of the sensory function. These might include sensations like pain or hunger. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay. The motor system involves in the process by which the body responds to the stimulus or the electrical impulse generated by the brain.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The systems that closely associate with the Nervous system are skeletal system and the endocrine system. The skeletal system helps in the protection of the internal organs and the blood cells of the body. In addition to that, the bones also help in the supply of the calcium which is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. The vertebral column helps in the protection of the spinal cord (Mulders et al. 2018). The sensory receptors present in the joints in between the bones enables the body to main the position and send the signal to the brain.

The endocrine system involves in the secretion of hormones in to the blood stream and body fluids. Hormones provide feedback to the central nervous system and help in the neural processing. The development of the nervous system is helped by the reproductive hormones.

  1. Pathophysiology

There are several factors that may lead to the disease and injuries of the nervous system.  Issues related to supply of blood also known as vascular disorder, injuries specially related to brain or spinal cord. Mental health related issues like depression, anxiety psychosis. Neurons which are the structural and functional unit of nervous system are sensitive to several external and internal factors. Factors like hypoglycaemia, metabolic disorders, anoxia, vitamin deficiency, viral infections. The effects of these disorders depend upon the degree of the defects that does have occurred. Vascular disorders may include stroke, subdural haemorrhage, and transient ishchemic attack. Infection like meningitis, epidural abscess and structural disorders like injury in spinal cord, cervical spondylosis brain or spinal cord tumours can occur in the patient leading to the malfunctioning of the nervous system.   Additionally Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis leads to the degeneration of the nervous system.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The nervous system in the human body can affect the immune function through stimulation of the immune organs and secretion of hormones from the different endocrine organs and pituitary gland. The human body has an in borne defence line against various infectious diseases and they generate stimulus and send to the brain. The nervous system initiates short span responses so that the adaptive immune cells are ready to perform targeted attack against the bacterial attack. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

     6. Medications and contraindications

The medication which is available for the disorders in the nervous system are as follows:-

  •  Administration of the acetocholine concentration amongst patients of Alzheimer’s including donepezil, galantamine.
  • For any kind of pain, analgesics like Aspirin, Acetaminophen are provided to the patients suffering from Arthritis. Some other drugs are ibuprofen, acetaminophen are prescribed for pain.
  • For panic and anxiety disorder medications like benzodiazepines, diazepam is administered.
  • For insomniacs for inducing sleep benzodiazepines and antihistamines are provided.
  • To control seizures and epilepsies drugs like carbamazepine and phenytoin are monitored in the patients.

The main contraindications of the nervous system is usually observed in case of drugs such as Amphetamine which is although a powerful stimulator helping in the treatment of several medical conditions. But the drug is also known to be highly addictive. Further several drugs were found to have adverse effects like restlessness, acne, blurring of the vision. In very rare cases seizures and heart problems are also found to affect the patients.

7. Degenerative Changes

  The degenerative changes that are observed among the human body with age are like the balance and movement of the body gets affected, the breathing and the heart functions slows down. Degeneration of the nervous system can also take place in case of alcoholism or if the patient has suffered stroke or tumour.

  1. Types of Trauma

The trauma related to the nervous system includes brain injury which may affect the neural circuit of the nervous system which leads to the inactivation of the neurons and the glial cells. This leads to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter within the brain tissue especially glutamate which enables in the over stimulation of the neuron resulting in the death of the neurons. Traumatic injury of the brain and spinal cord may result in the damage of the central nervous system. In addition to that anxiety disorders and psychosis can lead to damage of the nervous system.

7. Nursing Interventions and planning services 

__The nursing consideration includes addressing the patients by name even though the patient cannot respond. Refrain discussion of the patient’s condition in front of the patient.

  • Rectal temperatures are to be taken regularly. And report in case there is any change in the vital signs.
  • Attention is to be given of the changes in response to stimuli.
  • The change in the stimulus of the patients’ needs to be checked including protective reflexes, swallowing or blinking of eyelids. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  • Administration of the proper drugs for the patient suffering from the specific disorders.

Endocrine and Senses System

  1. Anatomy

Sensory – General                                                Endocrine

_____The endocrine system includes some of the major organs like hypothalamus, thyroid gland, pancreas, pineal body, adrenal gland, parathyroid gland, and reproductive organs. It consists of a network of glands which secretes chemical substances like hormones. This helps in the proper functioning of the body. It regulates certain chemical activities within the human body.

  1. Physiology

Different types of endocrine glands have different functions as follows: (Giulivo  et al 2016)

  • Growth Hormone:-  Growth hormone helps in the stimulation of the bone and tissue resulting in growth of the body.
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone:- It is produced from the pituitary gland and helps in the stimulation of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid glands.
  • Adrenocorticotropin Hormone:- This hormone is secreted from the pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal gland for the production of the steroid hormones.
  • LH and FSH- Luteinizing hormone and Follicle stimulating hormone helps in the control of the sexual function and regulates the production of the sex hormones like oestrogen, progesterone in females and in males secretion of testosterone.
  • Prolactin: This hormone helps in the production of milk in females.
  • Antidiuretic hormone: This hormone is also known as vasopressin which helps in the regulation of the water and control in the loss of water in kidneys.
  • Oxytocin helps in the contraction of the uterus during the child birth and for the production of milk.
  • Thyroid gland for the secretion of thyroxin hormone in the body helping in the development of brain and nervous system.
  • Parathyroid hormone that are produced from the parathyroid gland which helps in the regulation of calcium level in blood and bones.
  • Adrenal gland secrete the hormone adrenalin which helps in the maintainance of the salt and water in the body and helps in the maintance of the immune system and maintaining the sexual function (Geissler and Powers 2017). Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The endocrine system is related to all the different kinds of systems in the human body. The relation between the endocrine system to all the other systems are as follows:

  • The endocrine system controls the digestive function of the body. The digestive system of the body is regulated by the secretion of hormones. For example, pancreas secretes insulin which helps in maintaining theglucose level of the body.
  • The endocrine system is also related to the integumentary system of the body. The integumentary organs protects the endocrine organs of the body. While sex hormoneshelps in the stimulation of the sebaceous gland in the skin. Prolactin heps in the stimulation of the mammary glands. The adrenal hormone helps in blood low in the dermal layer of the skin.
  • Endocrine system is related to skeletal system. The endocrine system regulates mobilisation of calcium. The sex hormones helps in the growth of the epiphyseal cartilages which maintains the bone mass of the adult human being.
  •  Endocrine system is related to the muscular system where the hormones involves in the metabolism and production of energy. It helps in the muscular growth and involves in the regulation of the calcium and phosphate concentration in the body fluids.
  • Endocrine system is related to the excretory system where the concentration of the water in the body is maintained by hypothalamus. Antidiuretic hormone involves in the maintanng of the concentration and retention of water in case of low water levels in body.
  • Endocrine system also affects the cardiovascular system of the body where the hormone plays a vital role in maintaining the cardiovascular health.
  • Endocrine system is related to the immune system where the hormone acts as chemical messengers and stimulates the target organs. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  1. Pathophysiology

The endocrine glands which are stimulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary organ system shows following disorders:-

  •  The primary hypo or hyper function of the organ. This is related to the peripheral glands of the endocrine system.
  • Secondary hypo and hyper function in the central adenohypophyseal organ. This process is called adenohypophysis.
  • The tertiary hypo or hyper function of the hormones is related to the central hypothalamic part of the endocrine system.

The disorder in the endocrine system can also occur due to the problem in the target tissue or organ for the hormone. In such cases the disorder can take place because of the below following reason:-

  • Change in the number of the receptors or functions in specific hormones.
  • The existence of antibodies against the receptors of specific hormones.
  • In case of any defect in the post receptor mechanism for any specific hormone.
  • The change in the rate of the conversion of pro-hormone into activated hormones.
  • Presence of any defect in  in the hormone released in the peripheral tissue.
  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The Cytokines which is released in the activated immune accessory cells have the ability to affect the release of the hormones from hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland or hypothalamus, pituitary ovarian glands. Further endocrine system also involves in regulation of the immune response through the cortical and subcortical parts of the endocrine sysem. Hormone like epinephrine and norepinephrin helps in the regulation of stress.

7.   Medications and contraindications

Medications that are given against the different types of the disorders are as follows:-

  • Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, Thiazolidinediones are some of the the drugs administered in cse the patients are suffering from Diabetics
  • Anabolic drugs or steroids
  • Anti diabetics like like amynomimetics, dipeptyl peptidase, glucagon like peptide-1, insulin combos, Alpha gluconidase inhibitor, Rapid actimg insulins,
  • copper chelators,
  • Corticosteroids,
  • Growth hormone analogs
  •  Treatment agents for homocystinuria
  • Enzyme cofactors
  • Enzyme inhibitors
  • Vassopressin Anagonists
  • Vitamin D analogs

Contraindication of some of the drugs administered during the disorders of the endocrine system includes the following:-

  • In case of the hypothalamic and pituitary agent, the drugs are mostly administered subcutaneously. These agents agaent cross through placena as well as  breast milk. Some of them are also excreted ou through urine. These drugs causes hypersensitivity and may causes risk during the pregnancy.
  • Some of the drugs can lead to the increase in the stimulation of the sex hormone or in blocking of the sex hormone. This may lead to fluid retention, increase in the body temperature, decrease in the sperm count, alternation of the secondary sex characters.
  • In case of the drug use related to the growth hormone antagonists like bromocriptine is used for the treatment of the acromegaly in case only when the patients cannot tolerate any other administration of drugs.

8.  Degenerative Changes

With the increase in the age of the human body, there are several changes that occur affecting the endocrine system. This might also lead to the alteration in the production and secretion of hormones. Adrenal gland, also with the increase in the age of the body undergoes several changes that leads to the increase i the fibrous tissues. This involves sin the decrease in the production of the aldosterone and cortisol. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

  1. Types of Trauma

 The different types of trauma involves disorders as follows:

  •  Adrenal Insufficiency- In this case, the adrenal gland produces very less quantity of  cortisol and aldosterone hormone
  • Cushing’s disease- This disease occurs due to the increase in the production of the hormone from the pituitary gland due to the over activation of the adrenal gland.
  • Gigantism occurs due to the excessive production of the growth hormone.
  • Hyperthyroidism.
  1. Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The nursing intervention of the endocrine disorder includes the following step-

  • Regular check in the cardiac output, impaired vision, or lack of balance in the nutrition to be verified in case of the disorders related to Thyroxin and TSH
  • Regular monitoring of the impaired integrity of the skin and constipation,
  • Monitoring of the calcium concentration in the blood and verifying whether there is ay formation of the kidney stone
  • Monitoring any seizer suffered by the patients

Nursing  Plan and care for endocrine disorder includes-

  • Access if there any leak in ICP and CSF
  • Monitor any appearance of stress ulcers
  • Application o the moist packs on the eye for disorders like ecchymois.
  • Administration of the ointments and artificial tears as prescribed by the doctor
  • Strict sterile conditions are to be maintained in order to avoid meningitis

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Cardiovascular System

  1. Anatomy

The cardiovascular system comprises of the heart and the circulatory system.  The heart pumps the blood and the circulatory system distributes the blood to the different organs of the body.  The circulatory system through which the blood is carried to the different part of the body from the heart contains complex network of veins, capillaries, and arteries.  He oxygenated blood is carried by the blood vessels like arteries and capillaries while the deoxygenated blood is carried by the veins. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

  1. Physiology

In the cardiovascular system of the human body, the heart pumps blood through a enclosed network consisting of blood vessels. The main function of the system is the transfer of the nutrients, gases like oxygen an carbon dioxide, water, salt, and hormones. It also helps in maintaining the blood pressure. The system helps in the transport of the following factors through out the body-

  • Helps in the gaseous exchange from the lung to the blood and again from the different organs to the blood the deoxygenated blood is carried to the lungs.
  • Helps in maintaining the communication in between the cells
  • Helps in the removal of the cellular waste, carbon dioxide through different organs lik lung and kidey
  • Helps in storage of the nutrients in the liver and adipose tissues and also in the other part of the body
  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The system that is closely associated with the cardiovascular system is the respiratory system.  The circulatory system helps in the transports of the waste materials and carbon dioxide to the lungs and the kidney. While the circulatory system also helps in the transport of the different hormones from their point of origin to their site of action hence involving the endocrine system in the activity.  Removal of the waste also involves excretory system,

  1. Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system includes following disorders-

  •  Coronary Artery Disease- When the body perform any physical exertion the body utilises a large quantity of oxygen. Thereby it leads to the increase in the flow of the blood in the coronary arteries, In case the patient suffers from atherosclerotic plaque the coronary artery gets narrows down. As a rest during and physical exertion, the person may face hypoperfusion which might lead to the myocardial infarction. This causes severe chest pain and destruction of the cardiomyocytes cells.
  • Valve disease causes due to the insufficient flexibility in the valves of the heart. This leads to the back flow of the blood causing blood overload. In case this condition is kept untreated it leads to cardiac failure.
  • Heart failure- Heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to pump the required amount of the blood in order to maintain the required metabolic demands/
  • Arrhythmia occurs when in case of sudden ion imbalance due to hypoxia, there is an excessive build up of the ions which leads to the myocardial infarction. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.
  1. Defence and Immune Responses

During any cardiac injury, immune response plays a vital part in the repair and the regeneration of the heart. It becomes involved in various damage associated signalling, inflammation, intiation of the vascuarization and differentiation of the cardiomyocytes cells. Furthe the immune reponse helps in the replenishment of the cells. However, in case of the immune responses of heart attack, there is a chance of increase in the worsening of the atherosclerosis which leads to the increase in the risk of the heart. This is also followed by several cascades of inflammatory responses that worsen because of atherosclerosis actively increase the heart to fail in future.

  1. Medications and contraindications

Treatments and medication for the cardiovascular disorders varies on the basis of the change in the life style, surgery, and pacemaker.

  •  ACE Inhibitors which increases the diameter of the arteries and enables in the blood flow. They also helps in preventing heart failure.
  • Aldosterone inhibitors like eplerenone are  type of diuretic that do not consists of potassium. They help in the decreasing of the swelling and water retensing due to heart disease
  • Calcium channel blockin agents helps in the treatment of any chest pains or helps in decreasing the blood pressure
  • Beta Blockers like epinephrine prevents the production of the  substances that are harmful for the body due to the heart failure This also helps in the reduction of the pressure.
  • Also, Digotoxin, Diuretics, Inotopic therapy are some of the other medicines for the treatment of the heart diseases.

In case of most of the medicines of the heart disorders, correct drug selection for the patients is crucial.  Several drugs can have side effects like vasodilation with increase in flushing and headaches can occur. Some of them are also founsd to cause constipation eg Verapamil.  Drugs like nifedipine have found to have a begative effect on the inotropic effect. In some cases, calcium antagonist are also found to cause myocardial failure. The combining therapy of calcium antagonist like Beta blockers is found to be more effective.

  1. Degenerative Changes

As the age of a patient increases, there is a normal change that the heart undergoes which includes deposition of the aging pigment like lipofuscin.  There is degeneration of the cardiac muscles are also found in the older patients.  Thickening of the valves which regulates the flow of the blood in heart and become stiff.

  1. Types of Trauma

Cardiovascular trauma which eventually leads to the death of an individual includes following factors-

  • Blunt non penetrable trauma
  • Medical injuries that have cause during any invasive cadiac procedure
  • Implantation of any medical device in heart
  • Resuscitation of the cardiopulmonary function
  •  Any kind of cardiac injury caused due to the penetrative accidents like gun shots
  • Any injury caused due to automobile accident or any other blunt injuries.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The caring procedure for the cardiovascular disorders is very crucial for the systemic caring of the patients. The nursing care is planned in a organised manner helping in the felicitation of the systemic care of the patient. The nurse needs to collect the data related to the medical history of the patients. This will help in the clinical analysis  of the patients so that appropriate care can be given to the patient.

In the planning phase for the care giving of the patient, the nurse needs to identify the goals and objective of the care. The nurse requires to set certain goals  and evaluate the outcomes related to the caring interventions. In case of the patients suffering from heart failure, multidisciplinary intervention helps in increasing the quality of the life for the patient.

Lymphatic System

  1. Anatomy

The lymphatic system is an unique one way system that circulates the lymph fluid through the lymph vessels in to the cardiovascular system leading to the elimination of the toxic by products through organs like kidney, skin, lungs, colon, and liver. There are five important part of the lymphatic system which includes lymph vessels, lymph nodes, the tonsils, the spleen, and the thymus.

  1. Physiology

Lymphatic system consists of several ducts and vessels that helps in the elimination of the interstitial fluids. The removal of the fluids from the tissue to the blood circulation is a crucial process in the human body.  Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay. Further, the lymphatic system also helps in the transport of various dietary lipids and cells for the immune system. All these cells of the immune system are produced in the bone marrow which constitutes the hematopoietic system.

  1. Pictorial Representation
  1. Related systems/ how

The lymphatic system closely associates with the cardiovascular system.  The lymphatic fluids flow through out the body with the help of the circulatory system after getting collected from the tissues through lymph vessles. This system also relates with the digestive system as it helps in the absorption of the digested dietary lipids. These lipids then are transported to the different parts of the body through the lymphatic system.

  1. Pathophysiology

The lymphatic system helps in the removal of the unwanted toxin from the body. Hence the lymphatic system plays a n important role in the protection of the body against various infection and helps in the balance of the body fluids. In case of various disorders of the lymphatic system increase in the retention of the fluids in the tissue is observed. This leads to swelling of the body. This is known as lymphedema.  Other problems like infection, blockage of the lymph nodes and cancer is also observed. During the cancer treatment of a patient, there are several times when the lymph nodes get damaged as a result the lymphatic system fails to function properly leading to swelling of the body.

  1. Defence and Immune Responses

The lymphatic system has a crucial role in the immune response. It helps in maintaining the immunity and prevents the spread of the infection. This system plays the first level of the defence mechanism against any disease. The network of the lymphatic vessels helps in the filter of the lymph fluid, the lymph nodes, and the vessels carries antibodies and lymphocytes. The white blood cells that are manufactured in the bone marrow and spleen help the body to defend against the infection by producing antibodies. Macrophage and white blood cells destroys the bacteria and other harmful pathogens through engulfment of those substances.

  1. Medications and contraindications

For any disorder in the lymphatic system, therapeutic treatments are mostly adopted. This includes

  • Decongestive therapy of lymphatic system. It helps in stimulation of the lymph fluid and decrease in the formation of the edema.
  • Dieuratic therapy  to restore the fluid levels in the patient body
  • Lymph node transplant which is a surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes of the affected part of the body.

The major contraindication of the lymphatic system is congestive heart failure which occurs during the process of the lymphatic drainage. Renal failure, excessive bleeding, cancer blood clots, and infection are some of the contraindication occurs during the treatment of the disorders of the lymphatic system (Aspelund et al. 2016).

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  1. Degenerative Changes

The degeneration of the lymphatic system is observed with the increase in the age in Lymph vessels. With the increase in the age of the patient the immune system also becomes weaker. As a result, the normal rate of movement of the lymphatic fluids through the lymph nodes and lymph vessels helps in clearing of the bacteria and other disease causing pathogens also decrease in the rate. Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

  1. Types of Trauma

The blockage of the lymphatic system also known as lymphedoma can lead to the following traumas-

  • The disorder is associated with other conditions that include infectious and inflammatory disease.
  • In some case blockage of the lymph vessels and nodes are also found to affect skin and leads to various skin infections called lymphangitis.
  1.  Nursing Interventions and planning services 

The nursing and the planning of the care given to the disorders related to lymphatic system includes-

  • Educating the patient for the skin care and the details of the treatment regimen.
  • Maintaining the rehydration of the skin
  • Preventing any infection of the skin
  • Improvement in the movement of the joint areas
  • Allow flow of the lymphatic fluids through limbs and other parts of the body through movement
  • Preventing stagnation of the lymph fluids which will lead to fibrosis.
  • Promotion of the normal lifestyle maintaining good posture.

Immune System

  1. Anatomy

Cells

The cells of the immune system can be differentiated into lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocyte, and macrophages. The lymphocytes include T lymphocyte cells, B lymphocyte cells, and NK cells. Other cells like dendritic cells, granulocytes, megakaryotes, myeloid derived cells, and the natural killer cells comprises the immune system of the human body.

  1. Physiology

The innate immune condition of the body helps in the protection of the body non-specifically through the regulation of several defence mechanisms. These barriers include physical barriers like skin, antimicrobial proteins that protect the body against pathogen and other invading bacteria.  Analyse & Respond To Client Health Infomation Essay.

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